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The Protestant Reformation
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Protestantism holds that ultimate and final Authority resides solely in the Holy Scriptures. All Protestants agree the essential doctrines of the Protestant Reformation are:

Scripture Alone: This affirms the Biblical doctrine that the Bible alone is the sole authority for all matters of faith and practice.
Salvation by Grace Alone: This affirms the Biblical doctrine that salvation is by God’s grace alone and that we are rescued from His wrath by His grace alone.
Salvation by Faith Alone: This affirms the Biblical doctrine that justification is by grace alone through faith alone because of Christ alone.
In Christ Alone: This affirms the Biblical doctrine that salvation is found in Christ alone and that His sinless life and substitutionary atonement alone are sufficient for our justification and reconciliation to God the Father.
For the Glory of God Alone: This affirms the Biblical doctrine that salvation is of God and has been accomplished by God for His glory alone.
 

While the term "Protestant" historically referred to those who broke from the Roman Catholic Church, it has since come to describe virtually all non-Catholic Christians particularly in the West, including Anglicans, Methodists, Baptists and Presbyterians, among others. many "Protestants" don't consider themselves part of Protestantism at all.

The doctrines of Protestant denominations and non-denominations are not uniform and Protestantism contains both conservative and liberal theological strands. Doctrinal differences within the movement were first divided between the teachings of Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli. The beliefs of Zwingli were simple. He believed the Bible is truth and anything not in the Bible is not truth. Later, differences between Luther and John Calvin brought division among Protestant movements. Calvinists were allowed more disobedience.

Protestantism, as a religious movement, began in 1517. It started with the Ninety-Five Theses, a document challenging the teachings of the Catholic Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences. The 95 Theses was Written by Martin Luther (1483-1546), a Christian theologian and Augustinian monk. Luther’s call was for the Church to return to the teachings of the Bible since he believed the Church had lost sight of several central truths. The 95 Theses accused the Roman Catholic church of heresy upon heresy. The writings of Martin Luther inspired the Protestant Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines of Protestant and other Christian traditions.

In 1520, Luther's Protestant views were condemned as heretical by Pope Leo X. Soon thereafter, Holy Roman emperor Charles the Fifth issued his Edict of Worms, declaring Martin Luther an outlaw. In 1522 while in exile, Martin Luther translated and published the first Bible using the commonly-spoken dialect of the German people. In 1534, he translated and published the Old Testament. Luther's other writings include numerous hymns, speeches, pamphlets, and books about church administration. Martin Luther escaped martyrdom, dying of natural causes on February 18, 1546.

There are about 600,000,000 Protestants in the world.

 

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